コーヒーってなんの豆?

What kind of beans are coffee?

What is coffee?

It is sudden,,
Can anyone answer the question, "What is coffee?"

I'm sorry if you thought I was kidding. I'm not kidding.

If you thought that, surely it's just a liquid made by roasting and grinding the raw beans that have been made from the seeds of coffee trees grown in the coffee belt, which are then processed to remove mucilage caused by threshing and fermentation, and then drying them, and then using hot water to extract the ingredients through the difference in osmotic pressure, then it's obvious that it's a liquid. Sorry.

Before I started roasting coffee myself, I had never really thought deeply about it, but as I researched it, I found it to be quite deep and interesting, so I would like to share my impressions with you.

So today, I'd like to give you a rough explanation of what coffee actually is and what kinds there are.

It's mostly useless knowledge, but if you know it, you might be considered a coffee connoisseur.

<In this article>

①What kind of beans are coffee beans?
②History of coffee ③Types of coffee

What kind of beans are coffee beans?

…Of course, it's coffee beans. No, I'm not making fun of them.

But coffee beans are seeds of something.
If a plant has seeds it means that it can bloom and bear fruit.
So, coffee is a fruit after all!!!

This is seriously what it is like.
Coffee is a fruit.
In other words, it is a member of the apple family.
I never imagined that it would be the same as apples, which all children love.
Essentially, apple juice and coffee are the same thing.
Just learning this today made it worth reading. Good, good.

By the way, grape juice will ferment if made with 100% fruit juice, so
Apparently even commercially available products contain around 0.1% alcohol.
For me, who can't drink alcohol at all, it's a matter of life and death.

I wish I had been taught this when I was a child.

When you look at the black liquid in coffee, it seems hard to imagine that it was made from a fruit seed, but it is a fruit.
I don't know, but maybe if you roast grape seeds and pour hot water over them, they'll taste like coffee. I don't know though.

So, you may be wondering, what fruit is coffee?
Apples come from apple trees, right?
Grapes are grapes, right?
So, what about coffee?

Coffee is
It is the fruit of the coffee tree.
It's not a coffee tree
.
It's a coffee tree.
These are the beans inside the fruit that grows on the tree.
(I thought the name was exactly the same, so please don't mention it.)

So, if you plant a green coffee bean, it will sprout and produce a coffee tree .
And the fruit of the coffee tree becomes coffee.

The fruits are red and yellow, and look a bit like tomatoes or cranberries.
It seems a bit sour.
Yes, it's sour. (This is very important.)

The fruit of this tree is called coffee cherry (cascara).
There is a tea called cascara tea, which is made by drying and boiling this fruit part.

Cascara tea has a sour taste similar to dried cranberry herbal tea.

So let's dig a little deeper into the coffee tree.

A brief history of the coffee plant

Born in Africa.
Apparently Ethiopia is suspicious.

Amazingly, Africa is the same as our human species, Homo sapiens.
I've only recently started reading "Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind," so this is a timely topic for me.

Ok, back to coffee.
It is said to have been discovered around 1000 years ago.
1000 years ago would be around 1000 AD, when The Tale of Genji and The Pillow Book were written.
It has a long history.

It seems that it originally started as a drink for nomads as a source of energy.
I'll leave it to your imagination to guess what vitality refers to.

It was then transported by African slaves to Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula,
It later came to be used by Muslims to wake them up during prayer.
Praying has always made me sleepy, ever since ancient times.

Actually, my family is Buddhist.
Since I was a child, I grew up chanting the sutra Namu Amida Butsu during Obon.
I'm sleepy. I should have had some coffee.

,,Return the story.
As a result, the effects of coffee and caffeine have become more widely known.
It spread among scholars and traders, and they began to think that coffee was good for them.
It's a nice place to have coffee and socialize,
After all, good things can't be hidden, and it spread from the Middle East to Europe in the blink of an eye.

After that, due to the intentions of various people and countries,
Repeated smuggling and cultivation in colonies. Chaos.
Now it is spreading in a way that violates international law like a parade.
Nobody is afraid of fines or penalties. They just ignore them.
It's not grey, it's completely black.

Many countries and merchants engaged in repeated political negotiations,
Apparently it spread all over the world through smuggling and other methods.

If you want to know more about this, check out Wikipedia.


<Types of coffee trees>

It belongs to the Rubiaceae family, the Coffea genus.
There are now more than 120 varieties.
However, there are apparently more than 10,000 varieties of apples and grapes,
It seems like there is still room for growth.
As expected of an apple.

Roughly dividing the 120 types into two categories,
Arabica and Robusta.
There are others, but they are not widely available so I will ignore them.

Have you heard of Arabica?
You often see "100% Arabica" at convenience stores and in canned coffee shops.
Generally speaking, when expressing quality,
The word "Arabica" is often used.

However, coffee shop owners say that's a bit too easy.
It's like "100% apple juice."
No matter how 100%
Juice from a famous farm for 3,000 yen per bottle,
In the 100 yen 100% concentrated juice sold at supermarkets,
Even if they're both 100%, the quality is completely different, right?
That's it. It's something completely different.

However, I'm on a tight budget so I drink Tropicana from concentrate.

Return the story.
There are many differences between Arabica and Robusta, but Arabica is more expensive .

The reason it's so expensive is the taste and difficulty .

taste:
Arabica beans have a higher sugar content and oil content .
This tends to result in a smoother, less bitter taste .
It's a small thing, but they also have twice as many chromosomes, which probably also influences their diverse flavors.

Robusta, on the other hand, is characterised by its bitterness .

Difficulty:
Arabica requires both warm temperatures and cool nights.
It can only be grown near the equator and at altitudes of over 900m.
However, it is vulnerable to strong winds, direct sunlight, and frost.
It also contains a low amount of caffeine, which is a natural pesticide, making it less susceptible to disease.
In short, he is a spoiled child who requires a lot of effort to be protected .

Robusta, on the other hand, doesn't need cold.
It can be grown in lowlands and is disease resistant, making it easy to grow .
He's a great kid. His parents are relieved,
I feel like it would still be cute even if it required a little more effort.

that's why,
What is generally called specialty coffee is
It's almost entirely Arabica .
(But there are contrarians everywhere, and Robusta has been getting a lot of attention recently.)

However, there are good and bad Arabicas.
When comparing cheap and expensive items, the price difference can easily be as much as 100 times.
Therefore, it is important to note that Arabica does not necessarily mean good, safe, or delicious.

By the way, Robusta coffee is famously produced in Vietnam.
If you've ever had cafe sua in Vietnam, a bittersweet coffee made with condensed milk, you might know what I mean.
It's the bitterness of that coffee.
Ah, I want to go to Vietnam. That's what I thought while writing this article, so
I'll post a photo of Vietnam for no reason.

Furthermore, the origins of Arabica can be broadly divided into two types:
It is divided into Typica and Bourbon,
Among them, Geisha, which has been a hot topic recently,

There is also a cultivar called Pacamala, which is a representative of artificial breeding.
If I go into this any further I'll get bogged down in a quagmire, so I'll stop here for now.

Well, it's mostly useless knowledge, but that's all for today's article.

Well then!

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