Brewing coffee

So today, I'd like to move on to the final step in making coffee: extraction.

Previous articles are here ↓↓

①What kind of beans are coffee?
(Type of coffee)

②How coffee is made (coffee refining)

3) After the coffee arrives at the store (roasting coffee)

From here on, this will be familiar to anyone who makes coffee at home.
I think this is a lot more interesting than the nerdy and self-indulgent articles I've read up until now.

Or rather, will the knowledge I've broached up until now be met with an "Oh, I see" reaction, or will it just be scrolled away with an "I don't know" reaction?

Well, either way is fine.
I will continue speaking.

The extraction is divided into two stages.

1. Grind
② Extract


What is grinding?

It is to grind the beans into powder .
Some people grind their beans at home, while others have them ground at a coffee bean store or supermarket when they buy them.

You can still brew coffee as is, but it won't have much flavor if you do it that way.
If the beans are whole, there is not enough surface area for the water to penetrate deep into the beans .

Even if you put a freshly cut 1cm square piece of rock salt into hot water, it doesn't dissolve easily.
Whole tomatoes take longer to release their flavor when put in hot water than chopped tomatoes.
If the ice cubes in your barley tea are large, they won't melt easily, but if they are small, they will melt quickly.
Humans "chew" food to break it down into small pieces and make it easier to digest.
In principle, they're the same. Probably.

Coffee will not dissolve in water unless it is ground into powder.
(Well, to be precise, it doesn't dissolve like salt, but I hope you can understand it that way for now.)

So you need to grind (crush) the beans.
It would be better if the particles were smaller,
To be honest, you can extract coffee using a mechanical grinder, a hand mill, a blender or food processor, grinding it in a mortar and pestle, or even chopping it finely with a knife.

However, if you want to make delicious coffee, things are a little different.
What you need to make delicious coffee:

1. Uniformity of ground grain size
(There should be no mixture of too fine and too coarse grains.)
2. Brewing method and the appropriate powder size for beans
(The coarseness must be appropriate for the extraction method.)

It is two points.

1. If the powder size is not uniform, when you pour hot water over it, too much of the ingredients will be extracted from the fine particles and not enough will be extracted from the coarse particles . This will result in a subpar cup of coffee that does not realize its full potential.

The image I have of it is like a choir competition, where there are a lot of people who are off-key at high and low notes, and it sounds really unbalanced.

2 is a little complicated, but the optimum grain size for bringing out the best characteristics of the coffee beans varies depending on the type of coffee beans and the level of roast (light or dark roast), and also on whether you use drip or another brewing method.

It's difficult to compare this to a choral competition, but I wonder if it would not work if low-pitched men were given the high-pitched soprano part? Humans have their limits.
This means that people with low voices have parts that make the most of their characteristics, and people with high voices have parts that suit them.
Also, different songs require different numbers of people and different parts, which could be related to the way different coffee brewing methods require different sizes of coffee beans. I don't know.

Adhering to these two rules is the most important aspect of making delicious coffee.
In particular , deciding on the second size is almost always about creating a recipe, which I think is the biggest struggle for coffee makers.

Source: https://www.mahlkoenig.de/en

By the way, what I use in my shop is
The EK43 is made by Mahlkonig , a German company that originally made spice grinders.
This is the ultimate grinder, with a wide range of grind settings from fine to coarse, and excellent particle size distribution (variation in the size of the particles) in terms of taste. However, it is very expensive .
It's such a cheat that if other stores don't have this grinder, you'll be unrivaled just by having this.
Once, in our shop, we brewed the exact same beans using this grinder and a regular grinder, and had a customer do a blind tasting, and the customers correctly guessed which grinder produced which which 100% . It's that amazing.

When it comes to choral competitions, I think it comes down to the difference in producers.
So he's a talented producer who can create the optimal part composition, number of people, and intentional variation.
(I think I'm being a bit persistent, so I'll stop talking about the choir competition here, sorry.)

Source: https://fuji-royal.jp/

At home, I use a machine with a ridiculously named "Mirukko" made by a Japanese company called Fuji Royal. However, it is quite high-performance for its name, and while I feel that the variation in grind size is quite large ( compared to the EK43 ), I am quite satisfied with the fineness of the grind setting and the final flavor of the brewed coffee.
I used to use Kalita's Nice Cut Mill, but Miruko is far better.
However, the Nicecut Mill costs about 20,000 yen, and the Miruko costs 40,000 to 50,000 yen. This is the best one for home use.

Source: https://www.mazzer.com/en/

I also make espresso at home, so I use a Mazzer Mini grinder for espresso. Basically, drip and espresso grinders are different, so you can't use them together. (However, the aforementioned EK is the best grinder that can do both.)
This was also quite expensive, about 70,000-80,000 yen as I recall. There are cheap espresso grinders (still around 30,000 yen), but the taste obviously changes depending on the level, so it is common knowledge in the industry (at least in Taiwan) that it is better to invest in a grinder rather than an espresso machine.

Source: http://www.porlex.co.jp/

By the way, I show my already obsessive coffee obsession by grinding my own beans at the office using a manual grinder called Porlex.
This is a great product because it doesn't take much force to grind compared to a manual grinder, and you can grind it quite finely. It produces more than enough flavor for drinking at the office, but I still feel like the particle size distribution is not very good.
By the way, I think this one cost about 5,000 yen.

I sometimes hear fake news that says, "machines generate heat when grinding the beans, so grinding by hand is better because it doesn't generate heat."

It's true that heat is bad for the beans, but when you consider the instability of hand grinding (it's hard to grind evenly because the amount of force and speed change each time) and the performance of the teeth in the first place, it's hard to say that hand grinding is better in terms of uniformity. You'll understand if you actually try it and compare the two.
However, I think grinding by hand is a real pain, so if you make more than two cups a day, I think it would be better to invest in a mechanical grinder, which would give you more satisfaction and allow you to continue using it for a longer period of time .

For example, if you decide to start playing the guitar, but you always put it away in its case and keep it in the closet or somewhere, then when you think, "Oh, I want to play it," you'll think, "Oh, but it's such a pain to get it out," and then you'll think, "Oh, I'll do it tomorrow," and you won't continue.
If it was just left outside, you'd probably just pick it up without thinking, right?

The same goes for coffee.
The moment you think, "Oh, grinding by hand is such a pain," it's over.

I think making your own coffee is a great habit for both mental health and work efficiency , but at first it can be a huge hurdle because it's so hassle.
For those who are not used to making coffee, the hassle can be a major obstacle , so I think it's better to make the parts that are easy easier and lower the hurdle to continuing.
When you make an initial investment, there's also pressure to use it.

By the way, there are two types of grinders: one that grinds from above, and one that cuts and crushes.
(There are also types that actually cut with teeth like blenders or food processors, but they are not as functional and I don't recommend them.)
Generally, the ground type is used for espresso as it is easy to grind finely, while the cut type is used for drip as it is more uniform but coarse.
However, both have become more powerful recently (especially the EK43 , which has completely overturned the reputation that cut grinders are not suitable for fine grinding).
I’ll explain this in more detail later.

Again, this is the most important point,
The trick to making great tasting coffee is to grind the beans just before brewing .
There are many factors to consider, such as the brewing method and the quality of the beans, but this is what makes the biggest difference in the taste. Seriously.

What is extraction?

This is the process of turning coffee powder into coffee liquid .
Broadly speaking, there are two methods: one that allows water to pass through and one that allows water to penetrate.

A typical example of water permeation is drip coffee . Incidentally, espresso is also made in this way.
A simple example would be a drip bag.
This is a method of extraction where water is passed through coffee grounds from above.

>Click here to learn how to make drip coffee.
>Click here to learn how to make a drip bag.

On the other hand, osmosis type coffee machines include the French Press and Aero Press.
This is a way of brewing coffee where the coffee powder is left in water for a long time, and the ingredients gradually dissolve. It feels similar to using tea bags.

Click here to learn how to make an Aeropress.

By the way, most people use filters for coffee.
The flavor will vary depending on the type of filter used, such as paper, cloth, or metal.
Paper filters absorb the oils in the coffee, making it taste lighter and easier to drink . If you use a metal filter or no filter at all, the oils are extracted directly , resulting in a strong, powerful flavor.

This is a matter of preference, so either choice is fine.

Espresso is an extraction method that uses pressure.
The increased pressure increases the extraction rate, resulting in a stronger, more intense coffee.

I'll explain how coffee is extracted at some point,
For more details on how to brew it, please check out the brewing instructions page!

It is like this.
If you have any questions please feel free to message me.

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